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类型【址:a g 9 559⒐ v i p】1:蔡丹 大小:APTRjr3G88149KB 下载:plpacOpL14221次
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日期:2020-08-13 02:55:34
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李伟生

1.【址:a g 9 559⒐ v i p】1  In 1370, Chaucer was employed on the King's service abroad; and in November 1372, by the title of "Scutifer noster" -- our Esquire or Shield-bearer -- he was associated with "Jacobus Pronan," and "Johannes de Mari civis Januensis," in a royal commission, bestowing full powers to treat with the Duke of Genoa, his Council, and State. The object of the embassy was to negotiate upon the choice of an English port at which the Genoese might form a commercial establishment; and Chaucer, having quitted England in December, visited Genoa and Florence, and returned to England before the end of November 1373 -- for on that day he drew his pension from the Exchequer in person. The most interesting point connected with this Italian mission is the question, whether Chaucer visited Petrarch at Padua. That he did, is unhesitatingly affirmed by the old biographers; but the authentic notices of Chaucer during the years 1372-1373, as shown by the researches of Sir Harris Nicolas, are confined to the facts already stated; and we are left to answer the question by the probabilities of the case, and by the aid of what faint light the poet himself affords. We can scarcely fancy that Chaucer, visiting Italy for the first time, in a capacity which opened for him easy access to the great and the famous, did not embrace the chance of meeting a poet whose works he evidently knew in their native tongue, and highly esteemed. With Mr Wright, we are strongly disinclined to believe "that Chaucer did not profit by the opportunity . . . of improving his acquaintance with the poetry, if not the poets, of the country he thus visited, whose influence was now being felt on the literature of most countries of Western Europe." That Chaucer was familiar with the Italian language appears not merely from his repeated selection as Envoy to Italian States, but by many passages in his poetry, from "The Assembly of Fowls" to "The Canterbury Tales." In the opening of the first poem there is a striking parallel to Dante's inscription on the gate of Hell. The first Song of Troilus, in "Troilus and Cressida", is a nearly literal translation of Petrarch's 88th Sonnet. In the Prologue to "The Legend of Good Women", there is a reference to Dante which can hardly have reached the poet at second- hand. And in Chaucer's great work -- as in The Wife of Bath's Tale, and The Monk's Tale -- direct reference by name is made to Dante, "the wise poet of Florence," "the great poet of Italy," as the source whence the author has quoted. When we consider the poet's high place in literature and at Court, which could not fail to make him free of the hospitalities of the brilliant little Lombard States; his familiarity with the tongue and the works of Italy's greatest bards, dead and living; the reverential regard which he paid to the memory of great poets, of which we have examples in "The House of Fame," and at the close of "Troilus and Cressida" <4>; along with his own testimony in the Prologue to The Clerk's Tale, we cannot fail to construe that testimony as a declaration that the Tale was actually told to Chaucer by the lips of Petrarch, in 1373, the very year in which Petrarch translated it into Latin, from Boccaccio's "Decameron."<5> Mr Bell notes the objection to this interpretation, that the words are put into the mouth, not of the poet, but of the Clerk; and meets it by the counter- objection, that the Clerk, being a purely imaginary personage, could not have learned the story at Padua from Petrarch -- and therefore that Chaucer must have departed from the dramatic assumption maintained in the rest of the dialogue. Instances could be adduced from Chaucer's writings to show that such a sudden "departure from the dramatic assumption" would not be unexampled: witness the "aside" in The Wife of Bath's Prologue, where, after the jolly Dame has asserted that "half so boldly there can no man swear and lie as a woman can", the poet hastens to interpose, in his own person, these two lines:
2.  1. Among the evidences that Chaucer's great work was left incomplete, is the absence of any link of connexion between the Wife of Bath's Prologue and Tale, and what goes before. This deficiency has in some editions caused the Squire's and the Merchant's Tales to be interposed between those of the Man of Law and the Wife of Bath; but in the Merchant's Tale there is internal proof that it was told after the jolly Dame's. Several manuscripts contain verses designed to serve as a connexion; but they are evidently not Chaucer's, and it is unnecessary to give them here. Of this Prologue, which may fairly be regarded as a distinct autobiographical tale, Tyrwhitt says: "The extraordinary length of it, as well as the vein of pleasantry that runs through it, is very suitable to the character of the speaker. The greatest part must have been of Chaucer's own invention, though one may plainly see that he had been reading the popular invectives against marriage and women in general; such as the 'Roman de la Rose,' 'Valerius ad Rufinum, De non Ducenda Uxore,' ('Valerius to Rufinus, on not being ruled by one's wife') and particularly 'Hieronymus contra Jovinianum.' ('Jerome against Jovinianus') St Jerome, among other things designed to discourage marriage, has inserted in his treatise a long passage from 'Liber Aureolus Theophrasti de Nuptiis.' ('Theophrastus's Golden Book of Marriage')."
3.  F.
4.  Ye have forsooth y-done a great battaile, Your course is done, your faith have ye conserved; <14> O to the crown of life that may not fail; The rightful Judge, which that ye have served Shall give it you, as ye have it deserved." And when this thing was said, as I devise,* relate Men led them forth to do the sacrifice.
5.  O firste moving cruel Firmament,<5> With thy diurnal sway that crowdest* aye, *pushest together, drivest And hurtlest all from East till Occident That naturally would hold another way; Thy crowding set the heav'n in such array At the beginning of this fierce voyage, That cruel Mars hath slain this marriage.
6.  2. Poppering, or Poppeling, a parish in the marches of Calais of which the famous antiquary Leland was once Rector. TN: The inhabitants of Popering had a reputation for stupidity.

计划指导

1.  Shriek'd Emily, and howled Palamon, And Theseus his sister took anon Swooning, and bare her from the corpse away. What helpeth it to tarry forth the day, To telle how she wept both eve and morrow? For in such cases women have such sorrow, When that their husbands be from them y-go*, *gone That for the more part they sorrow so, Or elles fall into such malady, That at the laste certainly they die. Infinite be the sorrows and the tears Of olde folk, and folk of tender years, In all the town, for death of this Theban: For him there weepeth bothe child and man. So great a weeping was there none certain, When Hector was y-brought, all fresh y-slain, To Troy: alas! the pity that was there, Scratching of cheeks, and rending eke of hair. "Why wouldest thou be dead?" these women cry, "And haddest gold enough, and Emily." No manner man might gladden Theseus, Saving his olde father Egeus, That knew this worlde's transmutatioun, As he had seen it changen up and down, Joy after woe, and woe after gladness; And shewed him example and likeness. "Right as there died never man," quoth he, "That he ne liv'd in earth in some degree*, *rank, condition Right so there lived never man," he said, "In all this world, that sometime be not died. This world is but a throughfare full of woe, And we be pilgrims, passing to and fro: Death is an end of every worldly sore." And over all this said he yet much more To this effect, full wisely to exhort The people, that they should them recomfort. Duke Theseus, with all his busy cure*, *care *Casteth about*, where that the sepulture *deliberates* Of good Arcite may best y-maked be, And eke most honourable in his degree. And at the last he took conclusion, That there as first Arcite and Palamon Hadde for love the battle them between, That in that selve* grove, sweet and green, *self-same There as he had his amorous desires, His complaint, and for love his hote fires, He woulde make a fire*, in which th' office *funeral pyre Of funeral he might all accomplice; And *let anon command* to hack and hew *immediately gave orders* The oakes old, and lay them *on a rew* *in a row* In culpons*, well arrayed for to brenne**. *logs **burn His officers with swifte feet they renne* *run And ride anon at his commandement. And after this, Duke Theseus hath sent After a bier, and it all oversprad With cloth of gold, the richest that he had; And of the same suit he clad Arcite. Upon his handes were his gloves white, Eke on his head a crown of laurel green, And in his hand a sword full bright and keen. He laid him *bare the visage* on the bier, *with face uncovered* Therewith he wept, that pity was to hear. And, for the people shoulde see him all, When it was day he brought them to the hall, That roareth of the crying and the soun'. Then came this woful Theban, Palamon, With sluttery beard, and ruggy ashy hairs,<85> In clothes black, y-dropped all with tears, And (passing over weeping Emily) The ruefullest of all the company. And *inasmuch as* the service should be *in order that* The more noble and rich in its degree, Duke Theseus let forth three steedes bring, That trapped were in steel all glittering. And covered with the arms of Dan Arcite. Upon these steedes, that were great and white, There satte folk, of whom one bare his shield, Another his spear in his handes held; The thirde bare with him his bow Turkeis*, *Turkish. Of brent* gold was the case** and the harness: *burnished **quiver And ride forth *a pace* with sorrowful cheer** *at a foot pace* Toward the grove, as ye shall after hear. **expression
2.  14. Sapor was king of Persia, who made the Emperor Valerian prisoner, conquered Syria, and was pressing triumphantly westward when he was met and defeated by Odenatus and Zenobia.
3.  "Through me men go," thus spake the other side, "Unto the mortal strokes of the spear, Of which disdain and danger is the guide; There never tree shall fruit nor leaves bear; This stream you leadeth to the sorrowful weir, Where as the fish in prison is all dry; <10> Th'eschewing is the only remedy."
4.  "Fie," quoth she, "on thy name and on thee! The god of Love let thee never the!* *thrive For thou art worse a thousand fold than wood,* *mad For many one is full worthy and full good, That had been naught, ne hadde Love y-be.
5.  37. In this and the following lines reappears the noble doctrine of the exalting and purifying influence of true love, advanced in "The Court of Love," "The Cuckoo and the Nightingale," &c.
6.  Was never capitain under a king, That regnes more put in subjectioun, Nor stronger was in field of alle thing As in his time, nor greater of renown, Nor more pompous in high presumptioun, Than HOLOFERNES, whom Fortune aye kiss'd So lik'rously, and led him up and down, Till that his head was off *ere that he wist.* *before he knew it*

推荐功能

1.  "This is enough, Griselda mine," quoth he. And forth he went with a full sober cheer, Out at the door, and after then came she, And to the people he said in this mannere: "This is my wife," quoth he, "that standeth here. Honoure her, and love her, I you pray, Whoso me loves; there is no more to say."
2.  Arrived be these Christian folk to land In Syria, with a great solemne rout, And hastily this Soudan sent his sond,* *message First to his mother, and all the realm about, And said, his wife was comen out of doubt, And pray'd them for to ride again* the queen, *to meet The honour of his regne* to sustene. *realm
3.  Explicit.* *the end
4.  THE double sorrow <1> of Troilus to tell, That was the King Priamus' son of Troy, In loving how his adventures* fell *fortunes From woe to weal, and after* out of joy, *afterwards My purpose is, ere I you parte froy.* *from Tisiphone,<2> thou help me to indite These woeful words, that weep as I do write.
5.   29. Leden: Language, dialect; from Anglo-Saxon, "leden" or "laeden," a corruption from "Latin."
6.  16. "Gar" is Scotch for "cause;" some editions read, however, "get us some".

应用

1.  10. To be houseled: to receive the holy sacrament; from Anglo- Saxon, "husel;" Latin, "hostia," or "hostiola," the host.
2.  Gracious Maid and Mother! which that never Wert bitter nor in earthe nor in sea, <4> But full of sweetness and of mercy ever, Help, that my Father be not wroth with me! Speak thou, for I ne dare Him not see; So have I done in earth, alas the while! That, certes, but if thou my succour be, To sink etern He will my ghost exile.
3.  This Troilus, that heard his lady pray Him of lordship, wax'd neither quick nor dead; Nor might one word for shame to it say, <39> Although men shoulde smiten off his head. But, Lord! how he wax'd suddenly all red! And, Sir, his lesson, that he *ween'd have con,* *thought he knew To praye her, was through his wit y-run. by heart*
4、  62. In her hour: in the hour of the day (two hours before daybreak) which after the astrological system that divided the twenty-four among the seven ruling planets, was under the influence of Venus.
5、  3. See the conversation between Pluto and Proserpine, in the Merchant's Tale.

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  • 埃弗里 08-12

      23. Alanus de Insulis, a Sicilian poet and orator of the twelfth century, who wrote a book "De Planctu Naturae" -- "The Complaint of Nature."

  • 王建堂 08-12

      The courteous Lord Jesus Christ will that no good work be lost, for in somewhat it shall avail. But forasmuch as the good works that men do while they be in good life be all amortised [killed, deadened] by sin following, and also since all the good works that men do while they be in deadly sin be utterly dead, as for to have the life perdurable [everlasting], well may that man that no good works doth, sing that new French song, J'ai tout perdu -- mon temps et mon labour <5>. For certes, sin bereaveth a man both the goodness of nature, and eke the goodness of grace. For soothly the grace of the Holy Ghost fareth like fire, that may not be idle; for fire faileth anon as it forleteth [leaveth] its working, and right so grace faileth anon as it forleteth its working. Then loseth the sinful man the goodness of glory, that only is to good men that labour and work. Well may he be sorry then, that oweth all his life to God, as long as he hath lived, and also as long as he shall live, that no goodness hath to pay with his debt to God, to whom he oweth all his life: for trust well he shall give account, as saith Saint Bernard, of all the goods that have been given him in his present life, and how he hath them dispended, insomuch that there shall not perish an hair of his head, nor a moment of an hour shall not perish of his time, that he shall not give thereof a reckoning.

  • 萨曼莎 08-12

       The water-fowles have their heades laid Together, and *of short advisement,* *after brief deliberation* When evereach his verdict had y-said They saide soothly all by one assent, How that "The goose with the *facond gent,* *refined eloquence* That so desired to pronounce our need,* business Shall tell our tale;" and prayed God her speed.

  • 杨汛耿 08-12

      And, now that I have spoke of gluttony, Now will I you *defende hazardry.* *forbid gambling* Hazard is very mother of leasings,* *lies And of deceit, and cursed forswearings: Blasphem' of Christ, manslaughter, and waste also Of chattel* and of time; and furthermo' *property It is repreve,* and contrar' of honour, *reproach For to be held a common hazardour. And ever the higher he is of estate, The more he is holden desolate.* *undone, worthless If that a prince use hazardry, In alle governance and policy He is, as by common opinion, Y-hold the less in reputation.

  • 陈祉希 08-11

    {  THE PROLOGUE.

  • 朱建江 08-10

      12. Clove-gilofre: clove-gilliflower; "Caryophyllus hortensis."}

  • 朱绍良 08-10

      Lordings (quoth he), in churche when I preach, I paine me to have an hautein* speech, *take pains **loud <2> And ring it out, as round as doth a bell, For I know all by rote that I tell. My theme is always one, and ever was; Radix malorum est cupiditas.<3> First I pronounce whence that I come, And then my bulles shew I all and some; Our liege lorde's seal on my patent, That shew I first, *my body to warrent,* *for the protection That no man be so hardy, priest nor clerk, of my person* Me to disturb of Christe's holy werk. And after that then tell I forth my tales. Bulles of popes, and of cardinales, Of patriarchs, and of bishops I shew, And in Latin I speak a wordes few, To savour with my predication, And for to stir men to devotion Then show I forth my longe crystal stones, Y-crammed fall of cloutes* and of bones; *rags, fragments Relics they be, as *weene they* each one. *as my listeners think* Then have I in latoun* a shoulder-bone *brass Which that was of a holy Jewe's sheep. "Good men," say I, "take of my wordes keep;* *heed If that this bone be wash'd in any well, If cow, or calf, or sheep, or oxe swell, That any worm hath eat, or worm y-stung, Take water of that well, and wash his tongue, And it is whole anon; and farthermore Of pockes, and of scab, and every sore Shall every sheep be whole, that of this well Drinketh a draught; take keep* of that I tell. *heed

  • 威勒尔 08-10

      And so it fell upon a day, For sooth as I you telle may, Sir Thopas would out ride; He worth* upon his steede gray, *mounted And in his hand a launcegay,* *spear <10> A long sword by his side.

  • 邱琦 08-09

       56. Goddes seven: The divinities who gave their names to the seven planets, which, in association with the seven metals, are mentioned in The Canon's Yeoman's Tale.

  • 缪军 08-07

    {  Of HERCULES the sov'reign conquerour Singe his workes' land and high renown; For in his time of strength he bare the flow'r. He slew and reft the skin of the lion He of the Centaurs laid the boast adown; He Harpies <7> slew, the cruel birdes fell; He golden apples reft from the dragon He drew out Cerberus the hound of hell.

  • 万科城 08-07

      61. On the dais: see note 32 to the Prologue.

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